What is behind the word ‘Mycotoxins’?
Dr Alex Kamgain
Postdoctoral Research Fellow: Food Evolution Research Laboratory (FERL)
Have you ever heard about moulds in foods? Have you ever seen them on foods? You will certainly say “YES, OF COURSE!” and you are right. It is in fact those visible microorganisms generally associated with food spoilage and postharvest food losses. But do you know about mycotoxins? Most of the people will take few seconds to think twice and finally say ‘’NO!’’
That word comes from the Greek, “Mycos” which means mushroom and Latin, “toxicum” which means poison. Mycotoxins refer to toxic compounds that are produced by certain moulds during their growth on food and feed commodities. These substances can be harmful both for humans and animals. Indeed, when absorbed even in small amounts, they can lead to an acute or chronic disease termed mycotoxicoses. They have been reported as carcinogens, mutagens (genotoxic), teratogens, or immuno-toxins based on some effects observed on the liver, kidney, lungs, and the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Aflatoxins, Fumonisins, Ochratoxin A, Zearalenone and Trichothecenes represent the major ones. They account for millions of US dollars lost annually worldwide due to their negative impact on human health, animal productivity and agricultural products trade. Human contamination with mycotoxins can occur directly through the consumption of foods containing mycotoxins or indirectly through consumption of animals in which mycotoxins have been bio-accumulated. Strict standards on the maximum tolerable concentration of different mycotoxins in foods have been fixed at both national and international levels for a variety of foods including cereals, maize derived products, dried fruits, wine, spices, oats, coffee, cocoa, soybeans, meat, eggs, etc.
The sanitary control system of each country therefore has a key role to play by ensuring in laboratories that foods and drinks sold to populations are safe for consumption. However, at the household level one should avoid the consumption of foods that show moulds growth, or the use of such foods for cooking especially as many mycotoxins are reported as thermostable.
World Hypertension Day – Know your numbers!
Dr Bianca van der Westhuizen
According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of South Africa, high blood pressure, or hypertension, is a very serious risks factor that contributes to the development of heart diseases and strokes. Globally hypertension causes around 7.5 million deaths per year and many people are not even aware that they have hypertension. In South Africa more than 1 in 3 adults live with high blood pressure and it is responsible for 1 in every 2 strokes and 2 in every 5 heart attacks. 17 May is World Hypertension Day with the theme “Know your numbers”.
What is blood pressure? It is the pressure that the blood applies on the arterial wall. The systolic blood pressure (upper value) refers to the force of the blood on the arterial wall when the heart beats whereas the diastolic pressure (lower value) refers to the force when the heart rests. Blood pressure is needed for blood to reach the rest of the body and circulate back.
As mentioned, hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for a healthy heart. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can damage your heart as well as your blood vessels which supplies al the important organs with blood.
Can we tell if we have high blood pressure? Even though there are some symptoms of high blood pressure, most individuals are unaware of it. It is often called the “silent killer” for this reason. It is crucial to have your blood pressure measured at least once a year. Some of the common symptoms of hypertension are sweating, headaches, anxiety, dizziness, trouble sleeping and nose bleeds.
Blood pressure is measured using a non-invasive procedure where a pressure cuff is placed on your upper arm. A normal blood pressure is usually around 120/80mm Hg. Blood pressure should be measured more than once, on separate occasions before a diagnosis for hypertension can be made.
The International Society of Hypertension strongly advocates that prevention is key and individuals can reduce their risk by following these 10 guidelines:
Know your numbers this May-measuring-month by checking your blood pressure for free! Check out the South African hypertension Society for a free screening centre near you at https://www.hypertension.org.za/pages/measure-your-blood-pressure. Remember to tag the following hashtags #checkyourpressure and #MayMeasurementMonth when doing your screening!
Taking the guess work out of label reading
Dr Bianca van der Westhuizen (Food Evolution Research Laboratory (FERL), STH
Understanding how to read the nutritional information panel can be a powerful tool in making sure you make healthier food choices. This task can be daunting in some case if you don’t know what to look out for. Let’s look at some easy tips to follow and what to look out for.
The most important aspects of reading a label is to look at the information panel and then to look at the ingredient list.
1. Read the Nutrition Information table
A simple table can be used to determine what to look out for when choosing a healthier food option. We mainly look at the total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sodium and fibre when making our decision. Foods in the ‘low’ group can be eaten more often, but foods in the ‘high’ group should rarely be eaten or only on special occasions. Additionally to this, include products with a fibre content of more than 3g/100g.
2. Read the list of ingredents
Ingredients are always listed in order of weight, where the ingredients used in the greatest amounts are listed first, followed by those used in smaller amounts. Often the first three ingredients listed on the label make up the largest portion of the food item. Look out for sugar, salt and bad fats which may often be listed under different names. Below are some sneaky words to look out for:
Brown sugar, concentrated fruit juice, corn syrup, dextrose, treacle, fructose, glucose, glucose syrup, golden syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose, malt, malt extract, maltose, isomaltose, maltodextrin, maple syrup, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, sugar, cane sugar.
Animal fat, beef fat, butter, chocolate, carob, coconut oil, cream, dripping, ghee, hydrogenated oils, lard, margarine, milk solids, monoglycerides, palm oil, seeds, nuts, coconut, tallow, shortening, trans fats, vegetable fat.
Baking soda, salt, MSG (monosodium glutamate), any word containing the term sodium, nitrates, nitrites.
It’s always important to be cautious when choosing foods and to use the labels as a helpful source.
Moringa: a food treasure for humanity
In many countries around the world as well as in South Africa, there is an increasing number of people suffering from Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) mainly diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease and chronic respiratory disease. Unhealthy diet is one the leading risk factors. The Food Evolution Research Laboratory would like to share with you how important indigenous foods consumption may be helpful to prevent those diseases.
One of this Indigenous vegetables that we usually find in different forms in our local markets, supermarkets or elsewhere and for which we generally have a low interest is Moringa. Do you know that this plant is now considered as a “superfood?” this due to its nutritional value, medicinal properties and health benefits. The specie Moringa olifeira, also known as horseradish tree, ben tree, or drumstick tree, is commonly consumed as vegetable in Africa and South Asia. All the parts of the plant (leaves, pods, roots, bark, flowers, seeds, and fruits) are edible and are used to make medicines.
Moringa is a source of proteins showing the presence of all the essential amino-acids in their structure. It is also a rich source of vitamins and minerals. Indeed, it contains significant amounts of vitamin A, C, and E; calcium; potassium; iron and zinc. Leaves are the most nutritional rich part of the plant. They have 9 times the protein of yoghurt, 15 times potassium of banana, 25 times the iron of spinach, 10 times Vitamin A of carrots and 0.5 times Vitamin C of oranges.
Besides, Moringa contains phytochemical compounds that confer its medicinal/health value. This plant is used to treat diseases such as diabetes, cancer, epilepsy, heart problems and high blood pressure, anaemia, arthritis and rheumatism. Its efficiency against constipation; diarrhea; stomach pain; stomach and intestinal ulcers; intestinal spasms; headache; kidney stones; fluid retention; thyroid disorders; and bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections has also been reported. Furthermore, it has been described as an anti-inflammatory, an immune system booster, a libido booster, as preventing pregnancy and as increasing breast milk production.
As this plant is an easily cultivable one, it therefore appears as a sustainable solution for malnutrition and for NCDs fighting. One can benefit from most of its above-mentioned properties by directly and moderately consuming its fresh leaves as vegetables or their available derived products, especially leaf powder for food supplementation, capsules (powder in a capsule) or tea. Moringa oil, made from seeds, is rather generally used for beauty purposes (skin and hair care).
Dr Alex Kamgain
Postdoctoral Research Fellow: Food Evolution Research Laboratory (FERL)
I am married to Professor Jeanne Zaidel Rudolph and I’m blessed with five daughters, five sons- in- law
BDS (Wits) 1970, MPH (Harvard) 1977, MSc (Wits) 1981 and Specialist in Public Health Dentistry (Wits) 1984. Former HOD Community Dentistry 1978 -2011; Professor Emeritus; University of Witwatersrand; Senior Research Associate , Faculty of Humanities, University of Johannesburg Director, Siyakhana Initiative
I established, planned, implemented and managed the Siyakhana Initiative which has attracted global, national, provincial and wide community interest. This Initiative is now considered a hallmark for integrated programmes to promote urban agriculture, ecological health in urban and peri urban settings through appropriate innovative and practical training, improved food security, greater job creation, economic opportunities and healthier environments linked to sustainable climate smart agricultural practice, food security, nutrition and healthy lifestyles. The Siyakhana initiative is in the forefront of teaching, research, advocacy and community engagement. Numerous newspaper articles have been published and national TV programmes flighted on SABC. The development and offering of the first online course in food security in Africa has been particular rewarding and facilitating and managing the research regarding the role of women in food security and in the labour force has been an important contribution. Many 15 research studies across several disciples have been carried out at Siyakhana garden and or linked to the project’s activities.
Salt Awareness Week – Time to take action!
Annually the world and South Africa remind our population of the dangers of too much salt in our diets. This year is no exception, and from the 4th to the 10th of March we will celebrate Salt Awareness week. The Food Evolution Research Laboratory (FERL) based within the School of Tourism and Hospitality (STH) conduct research that improves decision making towards healthier food choices leading to healthier lifestyles and for this reason would like to remind you of just how much salt you are allowed to consume per day.
It is well known that food as we know it has evolved in terms of processing and fitting in with our busy lives. Although convenient, this evolution of food sometimes has some consequences like a higher salt content. Salt is present in almost all the processed foods we eat and is indicated on the lable as sodium. We are only allowed to consume 2000mg of sodium per day which is the same as one teaspoon of salt.
So what should you look for on the label? Look on the ingredient list for these words: Salt or any ingredient that contains the word “sodium”, MSG, baking soda or baking powder. If any of these words are in the first three ingredients on the food label of a food, it is likely to be high in salt. You can further explore the salt content of the food by checking the Nutritional Information Table. Look at the value for sodium in the “per 100 g” column and not the “per serving” column. You can use these sodium values to compare different products and choose the one with the lowest amount of sodium. Here is a very helpful table (taken from the Salt Watch website) to use when deciding whether a product is high in salt or not:
Cutting back on salt has received a lot of attention in South Africa in the past 6 years, based on data showing that we are consuming too much salt. This led to our Health Minister signing legislation to reduce the salt content in certain food products (i.e. breakfast cereals, breads, ready-made-meals, cheese etc.). June 2016 was the first target date with a follow up in June 2019, where our food will have to comply with a lower salt content. Soon you and your family will be eating less salt, without even noticing it!
Look out for more information on social media this coming week about salt. FERL encourages research around the evolution of food: the change in eating patterns with food away from homes, the movement toward healthy eating and combatting non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
Dr Bianca van der Westhuizen
Post doctoral Research Fellow: Food Evolution Research Laboratory (FERL)
FERL: SCHOOL FEEDING SYMPOSIUM
FERL – Food Evolution Research Laboratory, hosted its first symposium on School Feeding at the School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, on Friday 12th of October 2018. FERL was honoured to have hosted key stakeholders such as Ms. Carina Muller and Ms Mavis Ranwedzi from the Department of Basic Education, Professor Mosa Selepe from the University of Limpopo and Professor Amit Sharma from Penn State University, USA.The symposium focused on key studies that have been conducted over the past 3 years and some of which are currently undergoing further research and development.
Topics of interest were built around:
These topics were built around similar objectives, which were:
This further developed interests around the health and safety aspects of the school feeding programme and how these were implemented. The studies evidently uncovered the underlying factors and challenges that schools across Johannesburg/Gauteng are faced with on a daily basis. Some of the challenges include shortage of water supply for food gardens, inadequate access to gardening activities, limited financial resources and support, lack of capacity and training.
It is believed, through these and many more studies schools can serve as the starting point into a bigger community development initiative. FERL has begun its journey to ensuring learners at schools are receiving better quality and highly nutritional foods that are increasing the overall education and development rates of learners. FERL will further encourage it’s research to be developed around enhancing the national school feeding programme.
(), Dr Hema Kesa (Director: FERL), Prof Amit Sharma.
Dr Hema Kesa (Director: FERL)
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